Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. The country consists of 16 states and its capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 square kilometers (137,847 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 80.6 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state in the European Union. Germany is the major economic and political power of the European continent and a historic leader in many cultural, theoretical and technical fields.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation.
Germany has the world’s fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth-largest by purchasing power parity. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is the second-largest exporter and third-largest importer of goods. It is a developed country with a very high standard of living, featuring comprehensive social security that includes the world’s oldest universal health care system. Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the euro zone since 1999. Germany is a great power and is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, the OECD and the Council of Europe.
|Federal Republic of Germany
|Flag||Coat of Arms|
and largest city
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Holy Roman Empire||2 February 1962|
|German Confederation||8 June 1815|
|Unification||18 January 1871|
|Federal Republic||23 May 1949|
|Founded the EEC
(now the European Union)
|1 January 1958|
|Reunification||3 October 1990|
|Total||357,168 km2 (63rd)
137,847 sq mi
|2014 estimate||80,209,997 (16th)|
|2011 census||80,219,695 (16th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|Total||$3.338 trillion (5th)|
|Per capita||$41,248 (15th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|Total||$3.876 trillion (4th)|
|Per capita||$47,893 (18th)|
|Gini (2011)||29.0 -low|
|HDI (2013)||0.920-very high · 5th|
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
Why Study in Germany?
Why study in Germany?
Germany, the largest economy in the European Union and third in the world. Germany is emerging as a favorite destination for people willing to pursue their higher studies (especially for Masters & Doctoral studies in the field of science & engineering). Studying in Germany, where Education, Science and Research play a central role with no or less tuition fee will be an ideal choice to Students. After United States and Great Britain, Germany is the third most preferred country for students worldwide.
For Postgraduates, PhD students and Researchers, Germany is certainly an excellent place to study. Looking back more than 102 Nobel Prize winners have been educated in German universities and Germany continues to be at the cutting-edge of research today. Germany boasts an enormous academic and research network – both inside and outside the university corridors. Studying in Germany is a cultural experience in a country renowned for excellence in science, mathematics, engineering and much more.
Advantages of Studying in Germany
- Free higher education for foreign nationals (Literally NO tuition fees) *
- Low cost of Living
- Easy to earn a Master’s degree
- Developed economy & leading academic degree
- Students have a brighter future and the broader space for development.
- Excellent research opportunity
- Internationally recognized universities
- The close link between theory and practice
- Scholarships for highly qualified students
- First class service to international students
- Best Technology & International Degree
- Flexibility of the Course Duration
- Strategic University Locations
- World Class Facilities
- Excellent Job opportunities
- 20 hrs job during study
Education System of Germany
The Education System In Germany
Pre-school education – The elementary level (Kindergarten)
Before the period of compulsory schooling begins, 3 to 6-year-old children in Germany have the opportunity to attend pre-school institutions. Unlike schools, pre-school education is not free. The infants are not given formal instruction; instead, their development and relations with other children are fostered through play. Attendance at Kindergarten is totally voluntary. Although, since 1996, every child has had the right to a place in a Kindergarten, there is still a clear shortfall of places.
Primary level (Grundschule)
Normally, schooling for all children begins at the age of six in the first year of a Grundschule. Children attend the Grundschule for 4 years (6 in Berlin and Brandenburg), during which time they learn to read, write and to do arithmetic. In addition, teachers also offer some basic instruction in social science, history, geography, biology, physics and chemistry. Pupils can try out their creative powers in music, art, and craft lessons. Sport also forms part of the curriculum at the Grundschule. The teaching of foreign languages, which used to take place exclusively in secondary schools, is now also being offered at more and more primary schools.
Secondary Level I can consist of any of the following: Hauptschule(grades 5-9 or 10*), the Realschule (grades 5-10),Gymnasium(grades 5-10) and the Sonderschule (Special School). Most students are taught English at Secondary Level I. When they finish Secondary Level I, pupils sit the Mittlere Reife examination, which entitles them to start vocational training, to go to a vocational school at Secondary Level II or to attend a Gymnasium.
*The German ‘grades’ are different from the ‘years’ in England and Wales.
In the majority of the Länder (federal states), children spend five years at the Hauptschule (grades 5-9 or 10). The main objective of the Hauptschule is to prepare students for their entry into the world of work. From the first year of Hauptschule, all children learn English (sometimes French). They are also taught German, mathematics, physics / chemistry, biology, geography, history, religion (or a substitute subject), music, art, politics and sports, and are given an introduction to the world of work (Arbeitslehre). Once students have obtained their leaving certificate at the age of 15 / 16, they can go into practical vocational training, start work in the public service at basic or secretarial level, or attend a Berufsfachschule (full-time vocational school).
Students attend Realschule for six years (grades 5-11). Unlike theHauptschule, the Realschule gives children a broader general education and expects them to show greater independence. They also have a chance to learn a second foreign language (usually French), in addition to the first compulsory language (generally English). In comparison with the Gymnasium, the pupils are given a more vocationally-oriented education. At the end of their 10th year, successful pupils will obtain the Realschule leaving certificate. With this certificate, they have access to several training options: in-company vocational training, work in the public service at secretarial and executive level, further education in school at Secondary Level II or at a Fachhochschule. The Realschule is very popular in Germany.
Those school students who leave the Grundschule and go straight on to the Gymnasium still have another 8 or 9 years of school education before they take their final examination (Abitur or Hochschulreife). TheGymnasium is designed to provide students with an education which will enable them, once they have passed their Abitur, to study at a German university or equivalent. Students receive intensive specialised instruction to prepare them for academic work at a higher level.
Secondary Level II, i.e. the last 2 or 3 years at the Gymnasium, consists of courses, which students select themselves, depending on certain conditions and on their own preferences (with certain restrictions). All pupils have to select 2 Leistungskurse (special subjects) – 3 in the Saarland and Rhineland-Palatine. Students following Leistungskurse have to attend five hours of classes each week. The Abitur is based on the assessment of the subjects chosen as Leistungskurse and of two other subjects.
The Gesamtschule (comprehensive school)
The Gesamtschule combines elements from the Hauptschule, theRealschule and the Gymnasium. This type of school was introduced later than all the other types, mainly on the initiative of the education ministers in Länder governed by the SPD (Social Democratic Party).
Children usually spend six years at the Gesamtschule, from the 6th to the 10th grade. Depending on their ability, they either obtain aHauptschule or a Realschule leaving certificate. Pupils wishing to sit the Abitur attend school for another three grades.
Structure of Education System
Universities & Colleges in Germany
Universities & Colleges in Germany
There are currently 387 universities in Germany with a combined student population of approximately 2.4 million. Of these, 110 are universities or similar institutions, 221 are universities of applied sciences (in German ‘Fachhochschulen’) and 56 are colleges of art or music.
Higher Education Institutions are either state or state-recognized institutions. In their operations, including the organization of studies and the designation and award of degrees, they are both subject to higher education legislation.
Universities including various specialized institutions, offer the whole range of academic disciplines. In the German tradition, universities focus in particular on basic research so that advanced stages of study have mainly theoretical orientation and research-oriented components.
Universities have the right to confer doctoral degrees and cater for the education and training of the next generation of academics.
Universities of applied sciences concentrate their study programmes in engineering and other technical disciplines, business-related studies, social work, and design areas. The common mission of applied research and development implies a distinct application-oriented focus and professional character of studies, which include integrated and supervised work assignments in industry, enterprises or other relevant institutions. Almost a third of students attend universities of applied sciences
All students from abroad must apply for admission to a German university. This applies to freshmen, postgraduates and doctoral candidates alike. The admissions procedure ensures that applicants fulfil the necessary requirements to study at an institute of higher education.
If you wish to study at a German university, you need a so-called Hochschulzugangsberechtigung (HZB), or higher education entrance qualification. This is a secondary school-leaving certificate that corresponds to the German Abitur and entitles you to study.
Students from abroad must apply for admission from the university of their choice. For your application, you will require
for a Bachelor’s degree:
- a school-leaving certificate (also known as “university entrance qualification”, e.g. High School Diploma, Matura, A-Levels, Bachillerato, Atestat, baccalauréat) or
- proof that you have passed the university entrance examination (if required in your home country)
for a Master’s degree and PhD programmes:
- recognition of your university degree from your home country or another country.
- Not all higher education entrance qualifications apply to all study programmes. There is a general qualification (“allgemeine HZB”) which entitles students to study all subjects at universities and universities of applied sciences, and a subject-specific qualification (“fachgebundene HZB”) which entitles students to study certain subjects only.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Not necessarily. TheInternational Degree Programsat German universities let you take German language courses parallel to the degree course itself, because these degree courses are partly or even completely instructed in English in the first academic year. For all other degree courses you will be required to take aGerman language proficiency testfor admittance.
Students without strong German skills who are interested in short-term programs should look intoGerman University Summer Courses, some of which are in English and almost always have a language-learning component. But regardless of program requirements, any experience in Germany is bound to be more fulfilling if the student has – or is willing to acquire – at least a basic level of German ability.
No. The official semester dates are:
Winter Semester: October 1st — March 31st
Summer Semester: April 1st — September 30th
However, these days may vary from state to state and from institution to institution, thus we recommend to check the website of the university you are interested in.
The entrance application must be submitted by January 15 each year for the summer semester (beginning on April 1) and by July 15 for the winter semester (beginning on October 1). Students from outside Germany now have the opportunity to apply to several universities with only one set of documents through the Application Services for International Students (assist) . assist will check that all necessary documents have been included and that they meet the necessary formal requirements, and will then forward them on to the respective universities. The “Application Services for International Students” is a joint venture of the DAAD, the Conference of University Rectors and 50 German universities.
Critics have long decried the lengthy duration of German universities’ degree programs and the incompatibility of German degrees internationally. TheBologna Process, creating the European Higher Education Area, promises to enhance the academic exchange not just within Europe but also between the U.S. and Germany. Started in 1999 to reinforce the international competitiveness of the European system of higher education, the Bologna Process initiated the implementation of the two-tiered system leading to the Bachelor’s and Master’s degree respectively. The new system promises to widen the opportunities for exchange, especially for graduate students.
In this new system, one can obtain a Bachelor’s degree after only six semesters. Students may then continue on for another four semesters and earn a Master’s degree or the traditional German “Diplom”. None of the old German qualifications will be abolished; the diplom, magister and staatsexamen will continue to serve as the standard final qualifications for German programs of study despite their incompatibility abroad. It has been left up to individual institutions to decide whether to offer the new qualifications alongside the traditional German degrees.
A Master’s degree is not the exact equivalent of a German Magister – nor of a German Diplom or 1st State Exam. Although a Master’s and a Magister are generally comparable, it takes more time to earn a Magister in Germany than it does to earn a Master’s in the US or Canada.
Each year, theCenter for Higher Education Development(CHE) publishes Germany’s most comprehensive ranking of higher education institutions. This multidimensional ranking uses up to 40 different indicators to provide a differentiated and detailed view of the strengths and weaknesses of German higher education by subject areas. This is complemented by a research ranking published every fall to provide specific information on the research contribution of German higher education institutions. On theCHE website you can find out what the top-ranked German universities are in every subject area.
Institutions of higher education in Germany usually do not charge any tuition fees. But education policy in Germany is increasingly seeking to change this. A number of states now charge tuition fees for students who study for considerably longer than the stipulated period for course completion.
Apart from the relatively low semester fees (generally no more than 100-200 euros), students at German universities are not required to pay from their own pockets at any time. Student fees pay for student services association as well as the student union. In many university towns and cities, the student fee also buys you a ticket for free local transportation for the semester.
Research Internships in Science and Engineering (RISE) arranges paid summer internships for North American undergraduates to help German doctoral candidates with research projects at German universities.
Undergraduate Scholarships can be used to fund an internship in Germany.
The EMGIP Program (Émigré Memorial German Internship Program) offers internship opportunities for US and Canadian students in the German parliament, theBundestag.
DAAD is also the international representative of theIAESTE Technical Internship Program , which places university students into paid technical internships in approximately 40 of our 80+ member-country network. Internships are open to college sophomores, juniors, seniors, and grad students pursuing a degree in science, engineering, mathematics, architecture, computer science, or other technical fields.
In addition, the following institutions will provide contacts and give advice regarding internships in Germany:
- Bundestag Internship Program
- Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft
- Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange Program
- Council on International Educational Exchange
- Cultural Vistas
- Friedrich Ebert Stiftung
- German American Partnership Program (GAAP)
- German International Programs
- Transatlantischer Jugendaustausch
- Youth For Understanding
If you plan to direct enroll at a German university in order to complete a full degree program in a popular field of study, there is a chance that you might have a problem with “numerus clausus”. The term “numerus clausus” refers to policies of limited admission for overcrowded fields. Students from Germany and the European Union must undergo a selection procedure if they want to enroll in a degree program in an especially popular field. Students from other countries are not subject to this procedure. But that doesn’t mean that an unlimited number of students are accepted. In subjects such as medicine and psychology, for example, only a fixed number of foreigners who are not EU citizens are admitted. Here the selection process is subject to the average grade laid down by the institution of higher education.
However, if you are planning to stay only one semester or year in Germany, and therefore are not a degree candidate, you will usually have little or no difficulty obtaining admission.
Here are some guidelines for you if you don’t want to participate in an organized study-abroad program and would prefer to design your own semester or year of study in Germany.
Start your preparations early!
Make sure that your home institution will give you credit for your study, internship or research project.
Get in touch with faculty members in Germany and find a mentor. If you have trouble finding a contact in Germany, speak to your academic advisors for suggestions. Your application will stand a much better chance of being approved if you can provide evidence of an established contact at your chosen German host institution.
As a student applying for undergraduate programme, you need to complete your 10+2 from a recognised institute. For engineering courses, some universities may demand GRE while for Business Management courses, some universities may demand GMAT. Some universities require the student to take entrance test either online or upon arrival at the campus (in the later case conditional admission is provided). Having prior work experience, project work/thesis and extracurricular activities is highly appreciated.
It is not necessary to learn German language as universities in Germany also provide education in English. However, if the course is completely in German, then proof of proficiency in German Language (German as a Foreign Language Test -TestDaF) or German Language Test for the Admission of Foreign study applicants (DSH) is required.
If the course is in English, then proof of proficiency in English – TOEFL (550 and higher (PBT), 213 and higher (CBT), 79 and higher (IBT) or IELTS 6.0 is needed.
As a student, you will initially get a visa for a period of up to three months by German Embassy or Consulates General. The visa will be extended for one year up to the duration of the course by the competent foreigner’s registration office. One has to register within the first three months of stay in Germany. The application forms are available free of charge from the Consular Section of the German Embassy in New Delhi and the Consulates General of the Federal Republic of Germany in Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai.
The following documents are required to apply for a VISA to Germany:
- Two VISA application forms
- Signed declaration on ‘True and Complete Information’ form
- Three passport pictures according to biometric specifications. The size of the face from the bottom of your chin to the hairline must be between 28 mm and 35 mm.
- Visa fee to be paid through Demand Draft made out to the “Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, New Delhi”, payable in New Delhi.
- Valid passport with a validity of at least 12 months along with two copies of all printed pages.
- Cover letter from applicant, explaining the exact purpose and duration of your stay in Germany.
- Letter of admission from the German University.
- Proof that study fees have been paid, if applicable.
- School Leaving Certificate of Secondary School.
- University Certificates (Degree Certificates and Mark Sheets)
- Proof of Language Proficiency (TOEFL / IELTS, not older than 12 months, original and A 4 sized copy). This document is mandatory for the VISA process; even it is not required by the German University. Applicants for Ph.D / Doctorate studies and Erasmus Mundus Scholarship Holders are not required to show this proof.
- Proof of financial means to cover the costs throughout the duration of your studies (stay in Germany including university related fees).
- Proof of a valid Health Insurance.
Being a student in a German university, you have to pay semester contribution depending on the services it includes. The contribution may range from €200 to €350. You can also refer to official website of various universities. The semester contribution may include:
- Social fees: It is a fee towards social services such as student dining halls, student residence, athletic facilities and administrative fees.
- Liability insurance: The insurance covers and compensates unintentional damages to third party.
- Student union contribution: includes membership fee to the student union.
- Semester ticket: Include the ticket payment which permits unlimited usages of public transportation in or around university.
- If you are planning to move to Germany for your education, then the average expense of your stay will come up to €450 for a modest living. The expense may include rent & utilities, private accommodation, shared flat or student residence around, internet & mobile flat rate, internet DSL flat rate, health insurance, food & drinks and miscellaneous expenditure.
Foreign students in Germany are allowed to stay for a year after graduation in order to look for a job and are also allowed to work 90 full days or 180 half days during their course of study.
There are colleges in Germany which provide distance and online education offering various courses like Business Management, German, and many more. If you don’t have the budget to visit the country you can still have a degree from a university of Germany in your kitty. For admission requirements you need to contact the particular college offering distance education. Also, always check with AICTE if a university is authentic or not. There are various institutions that have collaborated with Indian colleges too.